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Table 1 Institutional orders in the evolution of Triple Helix model

From: Implementing the Triple Helix model in a non-Western context: an institutional logics perspective

Stages of development Major Triple Helix activities Favourable institutional logics
Stage 1 Realising the importance of entering a reciprocal relationship between university, industry and government Shared beliefs on knowledge as a key to economic growth (Logics of economic growth in the field of government and industry)
Realisation of the needs
Stage 2 Taking the role of the other Market oriented organisational cultures (Logics of market at the state level)
intra-organisational transformation
Process oriented management culture in technology innovation (Logics of knowledge management in the fields of industry and academia)
Stage 3 Growing and innovating through cooperation with others Effective protection for intellectual property rights and market participants (Logics of intellectual property at the field of industry)
interactions between organisations in the three sectors Generating hybrid organisation
Civil society (Logics of civil society at the state level)
Stage 4 Feedback loops between policy-makers and participants Competitive market environment (logics of competition in the field of university)
Institutionalisation of the Triple Helix model Institutionalised norms of “entrepreneurial university”, “knowledge-based formation and growth”, and “innovation state” (Etzkowitz 2008). Democratic policymaking process (Logics of democracy in the field of government)
  1. Source: Cai (2013).