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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 1 OLS and robust regression estimations of the empirical models

From: Organizing product innovation: hierarchy, market or triple-helix networks?

Outcome: log(Innoshare + 1) Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 robust Model 2 robust
Internal 0.59*** (0.12) 0.55*** (0.12) 0.59*** (0.12) 0.54*** (0.12)
Cooperation 0.23* (0.12) 0.20 (0.12) 0.22* (0.12) 0.19 (0.12)
New-to-market 0.24*** (0.08) 0.19** (0.08) 0.19** (0.08) 0.15* (0.08)
Regional partners   −0.00 (0.02)   −0.01 (0.02)
National partners   0.03 (0.03)   0.02 (0.03)
International partners   0.10*** (0.03)   0.10*** (0.03)
Company size −0.18*** (0.04) −0.21*** (0.04) −0.18*** (0.04) −0.20*** (0.04)
Foreign ownership 0.05 (0.10) −0.07 (0.11) −0.01 (0.11) −0.14 (0.11)
Mining 0.42 (0.31) 0.38 (0.31) 0.40 (0.32) 0.30 (0.31)
Manufacturing −0.29*** (0.10) −0.27***(0.10) −0.30*** (0.10) −0.30*** (0.10)
Electricity, gas and water supplies −0.15 (0.21) −0.16 (0.29) −0.23 (0.74) −0.24 (0.73)
Construction −0.15 (0.16) −0.08 (0.16) −0.25 (0.15) −0.18 (0.15)
Wholesale and retail trade −0.27** (0.11) −0.25** (0.11) −0.29** (0.11) −0.28** (0.12)
Hotels and restaurants −0.39** (0.16) −0.31* (0.17) −0.44** (0.18) −0.36** (0.17)
Transport and communications −0.13 (0.17) −0.10 (0.16) −0.09 (0.16) −0.07 (0.16)
Financial services −0.76*** (0.24) −0.77*** (0.24) −0.69*** (0.21) −0.70*** (0.21)
Constant 3.06*** (0.18) 3.03*** (0.20) 3.15*** (0.18) 3.15*** (0.18)
Number 752 752 752 752
R 2 0.12 0.14   
  1. Table shows regression coefficients, with robust standard errors enclosed in parentheses. * = P<0.10, ** = P<0.05, *** = P<0.01.