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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 1 West African scientific output (number of publications) per Triple Helix actor (2001 to 2010)

From: Information flow within the West African innovation systems

  U I G UI UG IG UIG Total
2001 780 3 447 1 103 1 0 1,335
2002 884 6 454 0 129 1 0 1,474
2003 925 8 482 3 156 1 0 1,575
2004 1,011 4 463 2 151 0 0 1,631
2005 1,410 6 657 3 252 1 0 2,329
2006 1,507 6 644 4 238 0 2 2,401
2007 2,086 7 735 7 327 1 0 3,163
2008 2,356 10 747 13 400 4 3 3,533
2009 2,756 7 739 11 427 1 1 3,942
2010 2,684 12 926 12 497 2 2 4,135
Total 16,399 69 6,294 56 2,680 12 8 25,518