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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 4 Mutual information, entropies, efficiency and transmission power in the West African national innovation system (2001 to 2010)

From: Information flow within the West African innovation systems

Country H UI H UG H IG T UI T UG T IG H UIG T UIG η(%) τ(%)
Benin 999.693 1,292.234 980.815 0.00 688.274 0.00 1,292.234 0.00 46.03 0.00
Burkina Faso 955.336 1,255.31 958.565 0.375 542.153 1.057 1,255.310 −5.503 44.72 1.00
Cape Verde 1,241.939 1,362.402 1,222.163 42.849 525.696 99.351 1,362.402 −216.902 48.53 24.51
Cote d'Ivoire 1,003.003 1,335.648 999.688 0.635 654.285 0.66 1,335.648 −5.731 47.58 0.87
Gambia 305.401 358.848 203.43 0.00 149.982 0.00 358.848 0.00 12.78 0.00
Ghana 1,047.245 143.309 1,085.431 7.114 529.522 5.228 1,464.74 −47.321 52.18 8.03
Guinea 920.677 1,099.2 841.019 5.678 496.54 28.368 1,099.2 −65.955 39.15 11.06
Guinea Bissau 572.369 706.835 383.464 0.00 248.998 0.00 706.835 0.00 25.18 0.00
Liberia 976.021 1,288.65 902.393 0.00 589.764 0.00 1,288.65 0.00 45.9 0.00
Mali 999.427 1,301.385 990.104 0.00 688.146 0.00 1,301.385 0.00 46.36 0.00
Niger 976.946 1,135.453 957.932 0.00 799.336 0.00 1,135.543 0.00 40.45 0.00
Nigeria 696.48 1,027.455 850.4 9.091 370.181 0.53 1,066.119 −31.148 37.98 7.58
Senegal 1,011.925 1,318.699 1,002.108 1.293 670.551 1.469 1,318.688 −11.011 46.97 1.61
Sierra Leone 1,106.157 1,386.951 1,085.815 15.927 594.332 21.284 1,386.951 −86.739 49.4 12.08
Togo 1,007.537 1,279.648 1,020.604 2.728 707.221 2.195 1,279.648 −18.175 45.58 2.49
  1. Entropies and transmissions in millibits of information.