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Table 2 Clinical Orthopaedic and Related Research recommendations for authors:

From: Gendered innovations: harnessing the creative power of sex and gender analysis to discover new ideas and develop new technologies

1. Design studies that are sufficiently powered to answer research questions both for males and females (or men and women) if the health condition being studied occurs in both sexes/genders.
2. Provide sex- and/or gender-specific data where relevant in all clinical, basic science, and epidemiological studies.
3. Analyze the influence (or association) of sex or gender on the results of the study, or indicate in the Patients and Methods section why such analyses were not performed, and consider this topic as a limitation to cover in the Discussion section. Readers need to know whether the results generalize to both sexes/genders.
4. Indicate (if sex or gender analyses were performed post-hoc) that these analyses should be interpreted cautiously because they may be underpowered (leading to a false conclusion of no difference). If there are many such analyses, indicate that they may lead to spurious significance and an erroneous conclusion of a sex- or gender-related difference.