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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 1 Classification of entrepreneurship b

From: Making a humanities town: knowledge-infused clusters, civic entrepreneurship and civil society in local innovation systems




Who serving for


To enhance the quality of life in a given environment

Human improvement in physical, mental and spiritual aspects

An individual or community


To create social value and Social impact

Seeking social impact and creating social value

Specific social groups such as the disabled, the poor, women or children in poverty


To achieve economic/commercial profit/income maximization

The best business

Users of products or service

The most profit

Staff welfare

  1. Mapping civic entrepreneurship