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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 1 Overview of economic and innovation performance of China and the USA

From: China’s innovation financing system: Triple Helix policy perspectives

Indicator Year China US
Population 2012 1.343 billion 314 million
Gross domestic product (GDP) 2012 USD 8.28 trillion USD 15.685 trillion
GDP growth (%) 2012 7.8 2.2
IMD world competitiveness ranking 2013 21 1
  2012 23 2
WEF competitiveness ranking 2013 29 7
  2012 26 5
Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) ranking 2012 84 12
KEI 2012 4.37 8.77
Percentage of R&D expenditure to GDP (approximate) 2012 1.6 2.8
Number of patent applications    
 Residents 2011 415,829 247,750
 Non-residents 2011 110,583 255,832
Total researchers in full-time equivalency (FTE) 2011 2,882,903 n/a
2007 1,423,381 1,412,639
Number of scientific journal publications (Scopus database, Elsevier B.V.) 2011 373,756 519,573
  1. Source: the authors’ design, based on the World Competitiveness Scoreboard (various years) by International Institute for Management Development (IMD), World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Competitiveness Report, World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators.