Skip to main content

Advertisement

A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 1 Comparison between USA and Russia by a number of indicators reflecting conditions and results of research and innovative activity

From: Intersectoral mobility of researchers in Russia: trends and policy measures

Indicators USA Russia
Number of days to start business, 2011 6 30
Quality of government regulations (expert evaluation), 2009 1.36 −0.46
Rule of law (expert evaluation), 2009 1.53 −0.77
Level of cooperation between universities and companies (measured from 1 to 7), 2010 5.80 3.70
Availability of venture capital (measured from 1 to 7), 2010 3.80 2.30
Expenditures of private sector on R&D (measured from 1 to 7), 2010 5.40 3.20
Technology absorption at firm level (measured from 1 to 7), 2010 6.00 4.00
Share of articles with international co-authorship (%), 2008 29.78 40.73
Level of unemployment (% to labor resources), 2005 to 2009 5.88 6.96
Complications in hiring personnel, 2010 0.00 33.00
  1. Source: based on the World Bank Knowledge Economy Index. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/WBIPROGRAMS/KFDLP/EXTUNIKAM/0,,menuPK:1414738~pagePK:64168427~piPK:641684351theSiePK:141472,00.html