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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 2 Share of innovative enterprises indicating co-operation with specified partners, EU27, 2002–2004 and 2008–2010 (percentage of all innovative enterprises)

From: Types of knowledge and diversity of business-academia collaborations: implications for measurement and policy

  2002–2004 2008–2010
Other enterprises within the enterprise group 9.5 9.3
Suppliers of equipment, materials, components or software 16.5 15.2
Clients or customers 13.9 12.6
Competitors or other enterprises in sector 8.3 6.7
Consultants, commercial labs, private R&D organisations 8.9 9.7
Higher education organisations 8.8 10.8
Government or public research institutes 5.7 6.1
  1. Source: Eurostat