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Table 4 Type, function and deepness of collaborations

From: Re-aligning the Triple Helix in post-Soviet Armenia

Depth Type Function Armenian examples
Isolated (Archipelagos) Ad hoc consultation of firm at universities Information gathering Conferences have been organised for building linkages typically in specific sectors (e.g. ICT, medical)
Regular discussions between U/I on various issues
Purchase of university research results on ad hoc basis
Lectures of firm employees held at universities Knowledge dissemination YSU/Faculty of Radio physics/Synopsis lecturers trained the staff to disseminate best practice
Lectures of faculty members held at firms
Far distance and Arm’s Length Cooperation Employing faculty members as regular consultants Information gathering Joint working as professors at university and engineers at firms (YSMU, YSEU and YSU)
Coaching of firm employees by U researchers Knowledge dissemination YSU/Faculty of Radio physics/Synopsis PhD students conducting research
Training of firm employees by professors
Joint supervision of theses by U/I members
Joint publications by professors and firm employees R&D  
Joint IPRs by professors and firm employees
TH (horizontal) Formal R&D cooperations—joint R&D R&D YSMU/Pharmaceutical Faculty)
Regular acquisition of university research
Formal R&D cooperation—outsourcing - Dental research firm in Garni
- Arpimed pharmaceuticals
Access to special equipment of I/U R&D infrastructure YSEU—NIs, IBM, Nokia softwares
Investment in university’s facilities
The types that are included into TH (horizontally deep) group may contain R&D collaboration Knowledge dissemination and information gathering  
  1. Source: modified version of Inzelt (2004)