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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 2 Total annual output and international collaboration data in the scientific publishing in West Africa (2001–2010)

From: Effect of international collaboration on knowledge flow within an innovation system: a Triple Helix approach

Indicator 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total
Annual output 1646 1796 1945 2097 2779 2835 3642 4198 4735 5044 30,717
(Co-)authors 3932 4372 4998 5588 7233 7927 9916 11,745 13,080 15,215 84,006
Authors per paper 2.39 2.43 2.57 2.66 2.60 2.80 2.72 2.80 2.76 3.02 2.74
International coll. 863 927 1045 1123 1421 1464 1655 1849 2108 2386 14,814
International coll. (%) 50.79 51.61 53.73 53.55 51.13 51.64 45.44 44.04 44.52 47.30 48.23