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Table 5 Triple Helix sectorial outputs for the West African region (2001–2010)

From: Effect of international collaboration on knowledge flow within an innovation system: a Triple Helix approach

  U I G UI UG IG UIG
  d F g D f g D F g D F G D f g d f g d f g
2001 829 376 819 4 1 4 471 161 321 1 1 2 112 146 387 1 0 2 0 4 4
2002 940 395 896 7 5 6 474 189 307 0 3 3 134 185 458 1 0 2 0 2 6
2003 1002 471 971 10 6 6 509 180 310 3 2 8 162 212 526 1 2 4 0 6 10
2004 1149 525 1112 4 4 2 491 184 297 2 2 9 163 237 562 0 2 2 0 2 3
2005 1525 653 1450 6 6 4 673 294 421 3 2 8 272 272 774 1 1 3 0 2 5
2006 1594 700 1547 6 2 4 667 235 393 6 3 11 253 324 763 0 6 4 2 5 11
2007 2198 805 2058 9 6 9 750 285 439 8 3 12 351 350 964 1 6 6 0 6 12
2008 2632 928 2497 11 5 7 783 272 437 13 8 25 426 407 1094 5 3 6 3 14 22
2009 3055 1056 2887 10 6 7 788 308 434 12 8 22 468 492 1234 2 0 2 1 4 11
2010 3053 1160 2825 12 10 5 999 377 563 13 5 23 546 587 1457 2 3 3 2 13 28
Total 17,977 7069 17,062 79 51 54 6605 2485 3922 61 37 123 2887 3212 8219 14 23 34 8 58 112