Skip to main content

Advertisement

A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 6 Mutual information (T uig, in millibits) and transmission power (τ) for West Africa (2001–2010) at domestic, foreign and global levels

From: Effect of international collaboration on knowledge flow within an innovation system: a Triple Helix approach

Year Domestic Foreign Global \( \frac{\tau_g-{\tau}_d}{\tau_g}\ \left(\%\right) \)
T uig τ d T uig τ f T uig τ g
2001 −20.23 3.22 −17.603 5.17 −18.029 6.4 98.76
2002 −29.812 4.99 −39.916 12.35 −23.39 9.55 91.38
2003 −36.401 6.37 −41.408 14.26 −19.288 8.76 37.52
2004 −16.608 3 −23.915 8.72 −6.497 3.16 5.33
2005 −17.413 3.38 −30.6 9.09 −9.648 4.62 36.69
2006 −18.789 3.59 −7.668 2.93 −9.441 4.69 30.64
2007 −18.564 3.92 −22.536 7.94 −14.643 7.84 100.00
2008 −17.86 4.11 −20.783 8.53 −10.203 6.14 49.39
2009 −15.459 3.78 −21.543 9.14 −9.73 6.46 70.90
2010 −17.613 4 −29.975 12.55 −7.818 4.86 21.50
2001-2010 −19.411 3.96 −24.716 9.14 −11.636 6.1 54.04