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Table 1 The knowledge triangle in EU policy

From: Efficiency of the knowledge triangle policy in the EU member states: DEA approach

  Knowledge supply and demand (strengthening the vertices of the knowledge triangle) Knowledge circulation (linkages between vertices of the knowledge triangle)
Research & development 3 % investment target Bringing together public research institutions with private innovators
Creation of European research area
Innovation Improvement framework condition for innovation Creation and development of innovation poles, network and incubators
Strengthening the European industrial base Promotion new technological initiatives based on Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)
Promotion of environmental-friendly technologies Establishment of the European Institute for Technology (EIT)
Education Development and strengthening education institutions and creation new ones Promotion of a more entrepreneurial culture
Expansion and improvement of investment in human capital and raising the quality of education and training Development of education responding new occupational needs, key competences and future skill requirements
  1. Source: Hervás Soriano and Mulatero (2009)