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Table 2 Input and output variables

From: Efficiency of the knowledge triangle policy in the EU member states: DEA approach

  Indicator name Definition Source
Input variables Annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per student in PPS, at tertiary level of education (ISCED 5–6), based on full-time equivalents, 2009 or closest Annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per student in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS), at tertiary level of education (ISCED 5–6), based on full-time equivalents Eurostat
Research and development personnel, by sectors of performance, 2009 or closest Full-time equivalent (% of the labour force), business enterprise Eurostat
Intersectoral mobility of researchers IM2—Post-PhD intersectoral mobility—Share of R2-3-4 researchers who have worked as a researcher (excluding PhD) outside the university or HEI sector, in % and by panel country MORE2 Higher Education Survey (2012)
Output variables High-technology exports (% exports), 2012 This indicator is calculated as the share of exports of all high-technology products of total exports. High technology products are defined as the sum of the following products: aerospace, computers-office machines, electronics-telecommunications, pharmacy, scientific instruments, electrical machinery, chemistry, non-electrical machinery, armament. The total exports for the EU do not include the intra-EU trade Eurostat
Scientific and technical publications per billion PPPS GDP, 2012 Number of scientific and engineering articles in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences Global Innovation Index 2013
SME introducing marketing/organisational innovations (% of SMEs) Number of SMEs who introduced a new marketing innovation or organisational innovation to one of their markets Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013
  1. Source: own compilation