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Table 4 Output-specific reference share ρ for efficient DMUs being benchmarks for inefficient DMUs in percent

From: Efficiency of the knowledge triangle policy in the EU member states: DEA approach

DMU High-technology exports (% exports) Scientific and technical publications per billion PPPS GDP SME introducing marketing/organisational innovations (% of SME) Average rank by ρ
Estonia 70.11 62.05 49.44 1
Slovenia 6.30 11.92 14.38 2.3
Portugal 7.75 7.98 3.51 3
Germany 4.19 5.46 7.95 4.3
Denmark 3.29 6.49 7.91 4.6
Romania 4.97 3.31 2.45 6
Sweden 1.83 1.50 2.84 7
Ireland 0.39 0.16 2.40 8.6
Netherland 0.18 0.13 3.27 8.6
France 0.31 0.23 1.72 9
  1. Source: own calculations based on Torgersen et al. (1996)