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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 1 Measurement and descriptive statistics

From: Hidden mediator roles of university spin-offs in Triple Helix networks

Control variables

 City region: variable in two categories, as a dummy (Trondheim = 1)

Trondheim 42 %; Delft 58 %

 Market competition: variable in two categories (many competitors = 1)

Many competitors 56 %; few competitors 44 %

 Firm age: continuous variable

Avg. 4.9; sd 3.1; min-max 0–10

 Firm size: continuous variable as number of full time equivalent in 2006

Avg. 7.2; sd 6.9; min-max 0.5–51

Capability factors

 Size of founding team: continuous variable as team members at foundation

Avg. 2.3; sd 1.2; min-max 1–5

 Pre-start experience areas: continuous variable as sum of types of founders’ experience in various domains

Avg. 1.1; sd 0.9; min-max 0–3

 Education level of founding team (number of PhD): continuous variable measuring the members with PhD

Avg. 0.6; sd 0.9; min-max 0–3

 Multidisciplinary education of founding team: variable in two categories (multiple studies = 1)

Single technology (65.7 %); multiple studies (34.3 %)

 Participation in training: variable in two categories, yes (1) and no (0), as a dummy

Yes (31.4 %); no (68.6 %)

Entrepreneurial orientation

 Initial growth strategy: a compound variable (size and international orientation), in three categories

Large and international (37 %); small and international (53 %); small and local (10 %)

 Type of innovation activity: variable in two categories, science-based (1) and non-science-based (0), as a dummy

Science-based: 27 %; non-science based: 73 %

 Level of innovativeness: continuous variable derived as a compound variable from R&D expenditure, newness in innovation, and patenting (based on factor analysis)

Avg. 0.1; sd 0.85; min-max −1.4 to 1.1

Dependent variable

 Diversity: continuous variable indicating social-economic diversity of knowledge partners, incl. spatial orientation

Avg. 0.35; sd 0.2; min-max 0–0.9