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Table 4 Summary of studies using university/PRI commercialisation output indicators

From: Assessing economic impact of research and innovation originating from public research institutions and universities—case of Singapore PRIs

Commercialisation output indicators Authors
Licensees that go IPO, royalties Powers and McDougall 2005a
Licenses Bach and Llerena 2007
Bekkers and Freitas 2008
Carlsson and Fridh 2002
Heisey and Adelman 2011
Hewitt-Dundas 2012
Huggins and Johnston 2009
Lach and Schankerman 2008
Nelson 2009
Sine et al. 2003
Licenses, spin-offs Bozeman and Kingsley 1997
Bozeman and Klein 1999
Georghiou, and Roessner 2000
Gulbrandsen and Rasmussen 2012
Maia and Claro 2013
McAdam et al. 2009
Pries and Guild 2011
Rogers et al. 1999
Rogers et al. 2000
New biotech enterprises Zucker et al. 1998
No of spin-offs that go IPO Powers and McDougall 2005b
Spin-off rate Bania et al. 1993
Colombo et al. 2010
Di Gregorio and Shane 2003
Spin-offs Bach and Lambert 1992
Harhoff 1999
Jacobsson and Vico 2010
Lehrer et al. 2009
Lockett and Wright 2005
Marion et al. 2012
Miner et al. 2012
O’Shea et al. 2005
O'Shea et al. 2007
Probert et al. 2013
Rasmussen and Borch 2010
Tassey 1999
Technology transfer Coccia 2008.