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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 5 Summary of studies using industry/firm innovation input/outcome indicators

From: Assessing economic impact of research and innovation originating from public research institutions and universities—case of Singapore PRIs

Innovation indicators


Innovation input

 Corporate patent linked to university papers

Agrawal and Cockburn 2003

 Corporate patents

Jaffe 1989

 Corporate patents, R&D expenditure

Autant-Bernard 2001

 Corporate R&D

Boardman and Gray 2010

 Corporate R&D and innovation

De Fuentes and Dutrenit 2012

 Corporate R&D stocks linked to universities

Adams 2002

 Corporate patenting rate

Hu 2008

 Induced investment

Giesecke 2000

Kramer et al. 1997

Pressman et al. 1995

 Industry-owned patents

Lawson 2013a

Lawson 2013b

 Innovative expenditure

Beugelsdijk and Cornet 2002

 Investment in building and equipment

Florax and Folmer 1992

 R&D intensity

Hauknes and Knell 2009

 Research collaboration

Martin 1998

Innovation outcome indicators

 Innovation sales

Beugelsdijk and Cornet 2002

Lööf and Broström 2008

 Innovative count

Anselin et al. 1997

 Innovative output of firms

Acs et al. 1994

 Innovative products

Beise and Stahl 1999

Varga 2000

 New product innovation sales

Eom and Lee 2010

 New products

Mansfield 1991, 1995, 1998

 New products and processes

Rosenberg and Nelson 1994

 No. of drugs entering each clinical R&D stage (from NIH grant expenditure)

Blume-Kohout 2012

 Product and process innovation

Bozeman and Kingsley 1997

Bozeman and Klein 1999

Coccia 2008

Conceição et al. 1998

Georghiou, and Roessner 2000

Kingsley et al. 1996

Klevorick et al. 1995

 Sales and profitability

Bozeman 2000

 Sales growth rate

Evangelista and Vezzani 2010

 Sales of new products, improved products and products with no or incremental changes

Faems et al. 2005

 Sales of products and services of spin-offs

Vincett 2010

 Sales per employee

Barajas et al. 2012

Lööf and Heshmati 2002