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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 5 Summary of studies using industry/firm innovation input/outcome indicators

From: Assessing economic impact of research and innovation originating from public research institutions and universities—case of Singapore PRIs

Innovation indicators Authors
Innovation input
 Corporate patent linked to university papers Agrawal and Cockburn 2003
 Corporate patents Jaffe 1989
 Corporate patents, R&D expenditure Autant-Bernard 2001
 Corporate R&D Boardman and Gray 2010
 Corporate R&D and innovation De Fuentes and Dutrenit 2012
 Corporate R&D stocks linked to universities Adams 2002
 Corporate patenting rate Hu 2008
 Induced investment Giesecke 2000
Kramer et al. 1997
Pressman et al. 1995
 Industry-owned patents Lawson 2013a
Lawson 2013b
 Innovative expenditure Beugelsdijk and Cornet 2002
 Investment in building and equipment Florax and Folmer 1992
 R&D intensity Hauknes and Knell 2009
 Research collaboration Martin 1998
Innovation outcome indicators
 Innovation sales Beugelsdijk and Cornet 2002
Lööf and Broström 2008
 Innovative count Anselin et al. 1997
 Innovative output of firms Acs et al. 1994
 Innovative products Beise and Stahl 1999
Varga 2000
 New product innovation sales Eom and Lee 2010
 New products Mansfield 1991, 1995, 1998
 New products and processes Rosenberg and Nelson 1994
 No. of drugs entering each clinical R&D stage (from NIH grant expenditure) Blume-Kohout 2012
 Product and process innovation Bozeman and Kingsley 1997
Bozeman and Klein 1999
Coccia 2008
Conceição et al. 1998
Georghiou, and Roessner 2000
Kingsley et al. 1996
Klevorick et al. 1995
 Sales and profitability Bozeman 2000
 Sales growth rate Evangelista and Vezzani 2010
 Sales of new products, improved products and products with no or incremental changes Faems et al. 2005
 Sales of products and services of spin-offs Vincett 2010
 Sales per employee Barajas et al. 2012
Lööf and Heshmati 2002