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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 5 Latent factors to barriers to innovation (knowledge-based institutions)

From: Barriers to innovation: the case of Ghana and implications for developing countries

Number of Factor Name of Factor Variables Factor Loading Cronbach’s Alpha Total Varience Explained KMO Bartlets Test of Sphericity
Chi Squared Df Significance
1 Poor Human Capital * Lack of Technically Trained Manpower 0.846 0.862 32.466 0.786 874.204 136 0.000
* Quality of Technically Trained Manpower 0.786
2 Sophisticated Markets * Lack of Demanding Customers −0.901 0.741 9.579
* Lack of Innovative Customers −0.846
* Lack of Competition −0.585
3 Organisational Risks * Excessive Percieved Economic Risk 0.764 0.751 8.579
* Organisational Rigidities 0.744
* Restrictive Public / Governmental Regulations 0.743
* Hierachical Organisations 0.576
4 ICT Stocks & Flows * ICT Capacity 0.890 0.925 7.006
* Rate of Access to ICT 0.856
5 (THIS FACTOR IS NOT RELIABLE AND HENCE NOT NAMED) * Lack of Explicit Policy Support 0.862 0.506 6.652
* Lack of Finance 0.749
Cumulative Total (CTVE) 64.281
  1. NB. Residuals are computed between observed and reproduced correlations. There are 60 (44.0%) non-redundant residuals with absolute values greater than 0.05