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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

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Table 1 Five symbiotic patterns for two players

From: Decoding symbiotic endogeneity: the stochastic input-output analysis of university-business-government alliances

  Player B
Player A +, + Mutualism +, 0 Commensalism +, − Parasitism
0, + Commensalism 0, 0 Neutralism 0, − Amensalism
−, + Parasitism −, 0 Amensalism −, − Competition
  1. Note: signs indicate payoffs for the players. The left-hand sign indicates the payoff for player A, and the right-hand sign indicates the payoff for player B, with “+” representing a positive or beneficial payoff, “0” representing a neutral effect, and “−” representing a negative or harmful effect. Source: Horaguchi (2014), with reference to Vandermeer and Goldberg (2003)