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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 1 Interviews according to the Quadruple Helix Matrix

From: The transfer of corruptive routines from old industrial regions to innovation clusters: a blind spot in innovation studies

  University Industry Government Society
Mature clusters (coal mining) Shanxi, Shaanxi, Guizhou • Researchers in coal mining
• Local training institutions (vocational)
• Owners of local coal mines
• SOE Managers
• Party members, local, provincial, central • Investigative journalists
• Industry experts
• Consultants
Innovative clusters (high tech) Beijing, Shanghai, Tjianjin • Business schools (Tsinghua)
• Universities (IMAU, Tongji)
• Students/researchers/faculty members
• Chinese managers in foreign firms
• Chinese high technology firms (f.e. Huawei Shenzhen)
• High technology zone management (Teda)
• Intermediaries
• Consultants
  1. Source: Carayannis et al. 2017; Carayannis and Campbell 2009