Skip to main content


A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 1 Interviews according to the Quadruple Helix Matrix

From: The transfer of corruptive routines from old industrial regions to innovation clusters: a blind spot in innovation studies

  University Industry Government Society
Mature clusters (coal mining) Shanxi, Shaanxi, Guizhou • Researchers in coal mining • Local training institutions (vocational) • Owners of local coal mines • SOE Managers • Party members, local, provincial, central • Investigative journalists • Industry experts • Consultants
Innovative clusters (high tech) Beijing, Shanghai, Tjianjin • Business schools (Tsinghua) • Universities (IMAU, Tongji) • Students/researchers/faculty members • Chinese managers in foreign firms • Chinese high technology firms (f.e. Huawei Shenzhen) • High technology zone management (Teda) • CASTED • Intermediaries • SAFEA • Consultants
  1. Source: Carayannis et al. 2017; Carayannis and Campbell 2009