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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 1 Historical university developments

From: Educational Action Research and Triple Helix principles in entrepreneurship education: introducing the EARTH design to explore individuals in Triple Helix collaboration

Concept of university Teaching Research Practice
Scholastic, middle age university; ‘unity of teaching1 Teacher presentations Students as co-listeners, co-thinkers   
Humboldtian, classic university: ‘unity of research and teaching’ Teacher presentations, seminar style studies, students as co-speakers individual researchers “ in solitude and freedom” institutes  
21st century university: ‘unity of praxis, research, and teaching’ Entrepreneurial studies, students as co-initiators, co-actors Action research, research consortium community action research Strategic partnerships; partnerships with startups, ventures, and venture capitals
  1. Adapted from Scharmer and Käufer 2000