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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 2 The EARTH synthesis

From: Educational Action Research and Triple Helix principles in entrepreneurship education: introducing the EARTH design to explore individuals in Triple Helix collaboration

The EARTH synthesis of educational action research and Triple Helix






Educational action research

A community of interests constitutes collaboration

Co-creation and participation with, for and by persons and communities involved.

Cooperation, co-learning, collective action

Teacher researcher as coordinator

Co-creation and participation with, for and by persons and communities involved.

Professional development and reflections on roles and processes

Development of practical solutions

Learning is central

A democratic, participatory process

Emergent processes



A better world Increased well-being for person and society

Social change as mean and goal

Action leads to new knowledge

Triple helix

The three helixes constitute systems and collaborations

Spaces of knowledge, innovation, consensus

An innovation organizer or collaborative leadership may coordinate projects

Academia can provide graduates with entrepreneurial education and innovative talents, who can contribute to economic growth and job creation

New ideas and solutions by and for all parties

Civil society of free formations

Ideal symmetry

Take the role of the other in mutual dependency

Consensus Benefits for the actors involved, economic growth

Practical solutions Innovation as mean and goal