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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 2 Possible roles of public sector in different life cycles of a network

From: The public sector’s role in Norwegian network cooperation: triple helix or laissez-faire?

Life cycle
Role of public sector based on
Formative (initial) Growth (expansion) Maturity (mature) Decline (transformation)
Laissez-faire   X (leave alone) X (leave alone)  
Triple helix X (start-help)   X (help to avoid decline) X (help to finding new path)