Skip to main content

A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 2 Possible roles of public sector in different life cycles of a network

From: The public sector’s role in Norwegian network cooperation: triple helix or laissez-faire?

Life cycle

Role of public sector based on

Formative (initial)

Growth (expansion)

Maturity (mature)

Decline (transformation)




X (leave alone)

X (leave alone)


Triple helix

X (start-help)


X (help to avoid decline)

X (help to finding new path)