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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Triple Helix Cover Image

Table 1 Outputs of the Triple Helix spheres in selected innovation systems

From: Measuring synergy within a Triple Helix innovation system using game theory: cases of some developed and emerging countries

Country   U I G UI UG IG UIG Total
USA # 152,449 6506 24,134 7200 37,834 1782 2666 232,571
% 65.55 2.80 10.38 3.10 16.27 0.77 1.15 100
UK # 39,316 1167 12,020 1719 13,098 394 690 68,404
% 57.48 1.71 17.57 2.51 19.15 0.58 1.01 100
Germany # 35,588 700 8627 1028 14,003 407 664 61,017
% 58.32 1.15 14.14 1.68 22.95 0.67 1.09 100
France # 13,571 507 14,020 439 11,593 452 530 41,112
% 33.01 1.23 34.10 1.07 28.20 1.10 1.29 100
Russia # 4978 102 10,996 76 6315 162 138 22,767
% 21.86 0.45 48.30 0.33 27.74 0.71 0.61 100
India # 4134 194 4563 97 1813 61 55 10,917
% 37.87 1.78 41.80 0.89 16.61 0.56 0.50 100
Brazil # 6052 46 1074 137 1727 32 52 9120
% 66.36 0.50 11.78 1.50 18.94 0.35 0.57 100
China # 13,235 61 3791 237 4610 68 114 22,116
% 59.84 0.28 17.14 1.07 20.84 0.31 0.52 100