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Table 10 Models and organizational characteristics of UTTOs at Tsinghua University

From: Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University

Types/ Organizational Characteristic Type 1 OTTOs Type 2 RTTOs Type 3 UREs Type 4 USPs Type 5 UOEs Type 6 NERCs Type 7 URJRI Type 8 UEJRC
1.Degree of disciplinary specialization Discipline integrated X X   X X   X  
Discipline specialized    X    X   X
2.Degree of task specialization Fully integrated   X   X   X X  
Backward integrated X        X
Forward integrated    X   X    
3. Level of autonomy Dependent   X X    X   X
Semi-dependent     X X   X  
Independent X        
4.Degree of exclusivity Exclusive X X X   X X   X
Non-exclusive     X    X  
5.Professionalization High level   X   X X   X  
Low level X   X    X   X
6.Standardization High level X X   X X X X X
Low Level    X      
  1. X: indicates that the type of university technology transfer organizations has the organizational characteristics on the left side of the column