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Table 2 Typology of university technology transfer organizations

From: Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University

Characteristic models Degree of discipline specialization Degree of task specialization Level of autonomy Degree of exclusivity
A: Classical TTO Discipline integrated Fully integrated, backward integrated, or forward integrated Dependent (on the university) Exclusive (to the university)
B: Autonomous TTO Discipline integrated Fully integrated, backward integrated, or forward integrated Independent Exclusive
C: Discipline-integrated Technology Transfer Alliance Discipline integrated Fully integrated, forward integrated, or IP integrated Independent Non-exclusive
D: Discipline-specialized Technology Transfer Alliance Discipline specialized Fully integrated, forward integrated Independent Non-exclusive
  1. Source: Modified from Schoen et al. (2014)