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A Journal of University-Industry-Government Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Table 3 Integrated dimensions for understanding organizational characteristics of university technology transfer organizations

From: Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University

Dimensions Descriptions
Variations Explanations
1. Degree of discipline specialization Discipline integrated Many disciplinary fields.
Discipline specialized Certain disciplinary areas.
2. Degree of task specialization Fully integrated It refers to university-industry technology transfer at various stages and aspects: new product development, technology consultation, IP management on the university level, and services supporting entrepreneurial activities.
Backward integrated It engaged in original product development with funding and IP management but barely supporting real entrepreneurship activities.
Forward integrated It focuses on supporting creating new firms and the other entrepreneurship practices, together with IP management. 
3. Level of autonomy and centralities Dependent Have limited autonomy in decision-making in rules and budget allocation; obtain funding and staffed from the host university.
Semi-independent Legally independent, while its board members assigned by the university as crucial representatives. Obtain donations from the host university, while its further development dependent on its profitability. The university bears a limited economic liability for its operation.
Independent Legally independent with extensive rights in decision-making in all respects with reporting to upper level. The university only sponsors for its creation, but not supporting or risking for its further operation.
4. Degree of exclusivity Exclusive Service for the affiliated university only.
Non-exclusive Service for many universities.
5. Professionalization High level The staffs have a university degree or higher in engineering or science; work experience in project management, IP management, or business management; or vocational certification in economics, judicial, patent agent, and consultant agent.
Low level It is mainly staffed with researchers from the university as their part-time job. The rest ones are barely met the above requirements.
Non-professionalization No specific professional qualifications required for staffs
6. Standardization High standardized Formulated regulations and procedures for university-industry technology transfer.
Low standardized No well-established regulations; the university-industry technology transfer occurs on case by case.
  1. Sources: Synthesized from Poglajen (2012) and Schoen et al. (2014)